ABSTINENCE

  • What is it? Abstinence means not having any kind of sex (vaginal, oral, or anal sex).
  • How does it work? The penis does not touch the vaginal area, therefore, the sperm cannot enter the vagina to fertilize an egg.
  • How do you use it? Abstinence involves a decision and a plan. You and your partner have to agree not to have any kind of sex.
  • Where can you get it? No prescription required. It involves a decision and a plan.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? If used consistently and correctly, abstinence is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? If used consistently and correctly, abstinence is 100% effective in preventing STIs and HIV.
  • Parenthood, P. (2016, February 03). Abstinence. Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control/abstinence

IMPLANTABLE ROD

  • What is it? The implant is a small plastic rod about the size of a matchstick that is placed under the skin of the upper arm. It is also called by its brand name, Implanon and Nexplanon.
  • How does it work? It used the hormone progestin to cause changes in the cervix that can stop sperm from joining with an egg. It may also stop the ovaries from releasing eggs.
  • How do you use it? A healthcare provider inserts it. It lasts up to 3 years. You can have it removed sooner if you want.
  • Where can you get it? A healthcare provider needs to insert it.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Fewer than 1 woman in 100 may get pregnant while using the implant over the course of a year. Most effective.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

INTRAUTERINE DEVICE (IUD): COPPER TYPE

  • What is it? The IUD is a small, T-shaped device that is put into and left inside the uterus, or womb. One type of IUD has copper in it (ParaGard).
  • How does it work? The copper IUD works to stop sperm from reaching an egg and to stop an egg from attaching to the uterus (womb).
  • How do you use it? A healthcare provider needs to put an IUD in for you. The copper IUD can stay in for up to 10 years. An IUD can be removed sooner if you want.
  • Where can you get it? A healthcare provider needs to insert it.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Fewer than 1 woman in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the IUD. That means the IUD is a very good form of contraception.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

INTRAUTINE DEVICE (IUD): HORMONAL TYPE

  • What is it? The IUD is a small, T-shaped device that is put into and left inside the uterus or womb. One type of IUD is the hormonal IUD. It has the hormone progestin in it, which is a hormone used in birth control pills. Some brands are Liletta, Mirena, Skyla, and Kyleena.
  • How does it work? The hormonal IUD works to stop sperm from reaching an egg and to stop an egg from attaching to the uterus (womb). It also may prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg.
  • How do you use it? A healthcare provider needs to put an IUD in for you. The hormonal IUD needs to be replaced after 5 years (3 years for Skyla). An IUD can be removed sooner if you want.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to insert it.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Fewer than 1 woman in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the IUD. That means the IUD is a very good form of contraception.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

INJECTABLE OR SHOT

  • What is it? Also called by its brand name, Depo-Provera, this is a shot or injection.
  • How does it work? It uses the hormone progestin to stop an egg from being released. It also cause changes in the cervix to stop sperm from joining with an egg.
  • How do you use it? A healthcare provider gives you a shot every 3 months.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you the shot.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Over the course of a year, fewer than 6 women in 100 may get pregnant while using the shot. That makes the shot a very good method for preventing pregnancy.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

COMBINATION PILL

  • What is it? Also called the “pill”, this is a hormonal method.
  • How does it work? It uses two hormones, estrogen and progestin, to keep the ovaries from releasing an egg and to cause changes in the uterus and cervix to keep sperm from joining an egg.
  • How do you use it? You have to take a pill at the same time every day. If you miss a pill (or start a pack of pills too late), you may need to use an additional form of birth control. You can read the manufacturer’s instructions or talk to your pharmacist or doctor.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you a prescription.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Over the course of a year, around 9 out of 100 women may get pregnant on the pill.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

PROGESTIN – ONLY PILL

  • What is it? Also called “the mini-pill”, this is a hormonal method.
  • How does it work? It uses one hormone, progestin, to cause changes in the uterus and cervix to keep sperm from joining an egg. Less often, it stops the ovaries from releasing an egg.
  • How do you use it? You have to take a pill at the same time every day. If you take it more than 3 hours late, you need to add another method of birth control for 2 days.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you a prescription.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Over the course of a year, around 9 out of 100 women may get pregnant on the pill.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

VAGINAL RING

  • What is it? It is a small plastic ring that send hormones into the vagina. It is also called by its brand name, NuvaRing.
  • How does it work? It uses the same hormones as the combined birth control pill but send them into your vagina.
  • How do you use it? You insert the ring. After 21 days, you take it out. You wait seven days and then put in a new one. If the ring falls out or you forgot to put in a new one, you may need to use another form of birth control. Read the company’s instructions or ask your doctor or pharmacist what to do.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you a prescription.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 9 out of 100 women may get pregnant while using the ring.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

PATCH

  • What is it? Also called by the brand name Xulane. This is a hormonal method.
  • How does it work? It uses the hormones in the combined birth control pill but sends them through your skin into your blood. It works to stop the ovaries from releasing an egg. It also cause changes in the uterus and cervix to keep sperm from joining an egg.
  • How do you use it? You put on a new patch each week for three weeks. During the fourth week, you do not wear a patch, so you can have a menstrual period. Read the instructions from the company or talk to your pharmacist or doctor about what to do.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you a prescription.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Over the course of a year, around 9 out of 100 women may get pregnant on the patch. It may not work as well in women weighing 198 pounds or more.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

MALE CONDOM

  • What is it? Also called a rubber, this is a thin protective covering made from latex, polyurethane, polyisoprene, or natural membrane also known as “lambskin”.
  • How does it work? It covers the penis so that when a man ejaculates (or “comes”), the sperm stays inside the condom.
  • How do you use it? You put a new condom over an erect penis before each sex act (and before any contact between genitals). To make sure sperm doesn’t spill into the vagina, the man must pull out his penis before it softens. He also should hold the condom against the base of the penis when pulling out.
  • Where can you get it? You can but it over the counter, at places like drugstores and supermarkets.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 18 out of 100 who use a male condom over the course of a year may get pregnant.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Latex (polyurethane or polyisoprene if allergic to latex) condoms that are used correctly and consistently can reduce (though not eliminate) the risk of STI transmission. Natural membrane or “lambskin” condoms are not recommended for STI prevention. Male condoms only protect genital areas that are covered. Condoms with the spermicide N9 may work less well to prevent HIV. Only use one condom every time you have sex: vaginal, anal, or oral.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html
    How to Use a Condom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwr4inj5jb4

FEMALE CONDOM

  • What is it? The female condom is a thin pouch that lines the vagina. It is made of polyurethane or nitrile.
  • How does it work? The sperm gets caught inside the condom.
  • How do you use it? You put it in your vagina before sex. The condom cannot disappear inside your body. A ring keeps the condom inside. Another one covers the outside of the vagina. After sex, before standing up, you twist the outside ring, remove the condom gently, and throw the condom away. Use a new one each time you have sex. Don’t use it together with a male condom.
  • Where can you get it? You can but it over the counter, at places like drugstores and supermarkets.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 21 out of 100 women may get pregnant while using the female condom over the course of a year.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? The female condom is believed to protect against some STIs, including HIV, but not as well as the male latex condom.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

CONTRACEPTIVE SPONGE

  • What is it? It is a donut shaped plastic foam item with spermicide in it. It’s sold as the “Today Sponge”.
  • How does it work? It blocks sperm from reaching the cervix, or opening to the uterus. It also uses a spermicide to kill sperm.
  • How do you use it? You wet it and push it up in the vagina to cover the cervix. It protects for up to 24 hours and for more than one act of sex during this time. To work, it must be left in at least 6 hours after the last time you had sex. It should not stay in more than 30 hours.
  • Where can you get it? You can buy it over the counter, at places like drugstores and supermarkets.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 12 to 24 out of 100 women may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the sponge (if used correctly).
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

DIAPHRAGM OR CERVICAL CAP

  • What is it? The diaphragm is a round latex or silicone dome that you put into your vagina.
  • How does it work? It prevents sperm from reaching an egg by covering the cervix (the opening to the womb) and by holding spermicide that kills sperm.
  • How do you use it? You put spermicide in the diaphragm and then put the diaphragm up inside your vagina. You do this up to 6 hours before having sex. You need to add a spermicide each time you have sex and also if the diaphragm has been in for 6 hours. The diaphragm must be left in for 6 to 8 hours after sex and removed as soon as possible after that. It should not stay in for more than 24 hours.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider needs to give you a prescription. To work well, the diaphragm has to fit right. Your healthcare provider will find the right size and let you know when you may need a new one.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 12 women in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the diaphragm (if used correctly).
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Types of Birth Control – GirlsHealth.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/bc_types.html

FERTILITY AWARENESS BASED METHODS

  • What is it? Fertility awareness based methods (FAM) are ways to track ovulation – the release of an egg – in order to prevent pregnancy. Some people call FAMs “natural family planning”.
  • How does it work? Your fertility pattern is the number of days in the month when you are fertile (able to get pregnant), days when you are infertile, and days when fertility is unlikely, but possible.
  • How do you use it? If you have a regular menstrual cycle, you have about 9 days or more fertile days each month. If you do not want to get pregnant, you should not have sex on the days you are fertile, or you use a barrier method of birth control on those days.
  • Where can you get it? Your healthcare provider will work with you and your partner to find the best method to utilize.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 24 women in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the fertility awareness based methods.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Contraception. (2017 February 09). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.html

WITHDRAWAL

  • What is it? “Pulling out” also known as withdrawal is a way to prevent pregnancy by keeping semen away from the vagina.
  • How does it work? The penis is pulled out of the vagina before ejaculation so the sperm cannot reach the egg.
  • How do you use it? Pull the penis out of the vagina before ejaculation.
  • Where can you get it? It does not require a prescription. It requires self-control. People have used withdrawal for centuries.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 22 women in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using withdrawal.
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Parenthood, P. (2016, February 03). Withdrawal. Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control/withdrawal-pull-out-method

SPERMICIDE

  • What is it? Come in several forms – foam, gel, cream, film, suppository, or tablet.
  • How does it work? These products work by killing sperm.
  • How do you use it? You insert into the vagina one hour before sex. You leave them in place at least 6 to 8 hours after having sex. You can use a spermicide in addition to a male condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap.
  • Where can you get it? Spermicides can be purchased at drug stores.
  • How effective is it in preventing pregnancy? Around 28 women in 100 may get pregnant over the course of a year while using the diaphragm (if used correctly).
  • How effective is it in preventing STIs? Does not provide protection against STIs or HIV.
  • Contraception. (2017 February 09). Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm